The best chernozems contain up to 70-90% humus (depending on whether it is alive or dead).
This program, for example, does not offer such an effective method of flood control and villages as the construction of dams and ponds in the upper reaches of the Carpathian rivers. These ponds could also be used to breed trout and produce cheap electricity, which would probably be enough to cover the capacity of the two nuclear reactors under construction.
If we evaluate the national economy of Ukraine according to the criterion of sustainable development, its irrationality and harmfulness to the nature and health of the people is obvious. Take at least ferrous metallurgy and ancillary production with their archaic, extremely dirty technologies, the capacity of which would be enough for the whole of Europe.
Isn’t it absurd that there are two large metallurgical plants, a coke plant and other enterprises in Mariupol? And this is in a city that lies on the shores of one of the most fish-producing seas in the world, in a climatic zone conducive to the development of the resort complex and tourism. The situation is the same in Dniprodzerzhynsk, Dnipropetrovsk region, where, in addition to the giant metallurgical plant, there is the Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant and two (!) Coke plants that poison the air and water basins within a radius of 100 km.
The ratification of a number of international environmental agreements by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, as well as the establishment of the Commission on Sustainable Development in the country, rather serves as a fig leaf covering the unattractive state of domestic environmental policy.
How to fix the situation? It is possible to stabilize the ecological state of the Earth only through the painstaking work of “everyone and everything” on the basis of sustainable development. We are convinced that based on the vast experience gained over 10 years by civilized countries, involving a wide network of public and scientific organizations, Ukraine must develop an adequate National Strategy for Sustainable Development.
In addition to the National Strategy for Sustainable Development, the Verkhovna Rada and the Government of Ukraine must also ensure the development of regional programs for sustainable development in the 21st century. Only the awareness of each person of the approaching catastrophe and taking the necessary measures to prevent it will save life on Earth.
Ivanenko SM Problems of nature protection. – K., 2001. Textbook of ecology. – K., 2000. Ecological dictionary-reference book. – Kharkiv, 2000.
Land resources: protection and rational use. Abstract
Ukraine is rich in land resources. Rich in chernozem soils, which are determined by the highest fertility among all other soil types
Irrational use of land resources leads to the fact that Ukrainian chernozems lose their properties, simply weathered and washed away by water, and this, in turn, leads to a deterioration in the quality of land resources of Ukraine. Therefore, the issue of rational use of land resources and their protection is important.
Soils are formed under the influence of climate, living organisms, the composition and structure of the parent rocks, terrain and age of the territory. The amount of precipitation depends on the climate, which affects the development of vegetation, the activity of microorganisms, the solution of various compounds in the soil and their movement. Temperature affects the course of chemical and biochemical reactions.
As a result of the interaction of many complex processes, the chemical composition of the soil is formed.
The soil consists of various mineral, organic and organo-mineral compounds.
The most important component of the soil is humus – humus. It is formed from organic plant and animal residues, which annually enter the soil and decompose and synthesize under the influence of microorganisms.
The chemical composition of the soil significantly affects its fertility, its physical and biological properties.
Plant rainfall in forests and dead grass vegetation after decomposition by microorganisms give a lot of organic matter, increasing the capacity of the soil. Humus is partially mineralized and again under the influence of microorganisms turns into mineral compounds available to plants.
The soil contains trace elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, etc.) and trace elements (boron, manganese, molybdenum, copper, zinc, etc.), which plants consume in small quantities. Their ratio determines the chemical composition of the soil. It depends on the content of elements in the parent rock, climatic factors, vegetation. The more moist the soil, the poorer the mineral compounds of its upper horizons.
The chemical composition of the soil is constantly changing under the influence of organisms, climate, human activity. When applying fertilizers, the soil is enriched with nutrients.
Depending on the presence of certain chemical elements, the acidity of the soil is distinguished. The main natural source of soil acidity is organic acids. They are formed during the decomposition of plant residues of microorganisms without access of air and seep into the soil with atmospheric moisture. Acidification of the soil also occurs when sediments leach calcium and magnesium from the root layer. Acids can also accumulate in the soil from the systematic use of so-called physiological acid fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, etc.).
Soil acidity is caused by hydrogen ions, which are formed by the dissociation of acids and hydrolytic acid salts, as well as absorbed by the smallest particles of soil – colloids, which can pass into the soil solution.
Increased acidity adversely affects the growth and development of most cultivated plants, interferes with the favorable course of microbiological processes in the soil. Alfalfa, wheat, corn, etc. are especially sensitive to high acidity.
Also distinguished among the chemical phenomena associated with soil salinization of soils.
Soil salinization is an increase in the predominant content of easily soluble salts in the soil (over 0.25%), which leads to the formation of saline and saline soils.
Reasonable regulation of soil chemical composition can increase soil fertility, and vice versa, incompetent use of mineral fertilizers, improper tillage – can change the chemical composition of the soil in a negative way and cause the devastation of fertile land.
Land is the basis of agricultural production and forestry. Cereals, industrial and forest crops, fodder grasses, orchards and berries are grown on the land. Agricultural production provides people with food, and industry – a variety of raw materials.
The quantity and quality of food depends on tillage, plant nutrition and so on.
Soils are an organic-mineral product of long-term joint activity of living organisms, water, air, solar heat and light. These natural formations are characterized by fertility, provide plants with nutrients (potassium, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.) and everything necessary for their vital functions.
Soils play an active filtering role in the treatment of natural and wastewater.
The soil and vegetation of the planet is a regulator of the water balance of the land, because it absorbs, retains and redistributes a large amount of atmospheric moisture. It is a universal biological filter and neutralizer of many types of anthropic pollution.
There are more than 38 types of soils in Ukraine. They differ in structure, mineral composition, content of humus and nutrients, physical website that writes lab reports for you and chemical properties, fertility, suitability for agricultural use.
Of all soil types, the most fertile are chernozems. Soil fertility is determined by a component such as humus (humus). It is an organic substance formed from the remains of dead organisms, as well as as a result of the activity of organisms that process these remains, decompose, enrich with carbon dioxide, water, ammonia and other substances. The process of soil formation (soil formation) is an important part of the biological cycle of substances and energy. The soil provides plants with potassium, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.
Soil fertility depends on the amount of these substances in the humus, the humus content in the soil and the thickness of the soil layer. The best chernozems contain up to 70-90% humus (depending on whether it is alive or dead).
Russian soil scientist VV Dokuchaev wrote that chernozem is more expensive than gold, more expensive than coal. At the International Institute of Metrology in Paris, along with the standards of meters, kilograms and other measures, a monolith of chernozem from the Voronezh region is placed as a standard of the most fertile soil in the world.
The main reasons for the decrease in the agronomic properties of the soil are, first of all, repeated cultivation of its various tools with the help of powerful and heavy wheeled tractors and combines; water and wind erosion (this process increases sharply due to low agricultural crops, outdated tillage methods, etc.); consumer attitude to the land, trying to take as much as possible from it and return it as little as possible, which leads to depletion of humus; transition to industrial and intensive technologies, i.e. the use of high doses of mineral fertilizers and chemical plant protection products, which is accompanied by soil contamination with ballast substances (chlorides, sulfates), accumulation of pesticides in soils and groundwater.
Soils are polluted by exhaust gases from tractors, combines, cars, lubricants and fuels that flow from them during field work, as well as man-made emissions from industrial enterprises – sulfates, nitrogen oxides, heavy metals, radionuclides. Irreversible damage to soils is caused by the allocation of agricultural land, especially arable land, for the construction of factories, plants, power plants, opencast mining, roads and cities, military training grounds, etc.
Thus, the catastrophic state of our lands requires urgent science-based measures aimed at increasing soil fertility and obtaining environmentally friendly food.
Measures aimed at preserving soils. The most important measure for soil conservation is the proper formation of the cultural agro-landscape. Each ecosystem must have its own, scientifically sound relationship between fields, forests, meadows, swamps, reservoirs. This will give the highest economic effect and save the environment.