APA & Annotated Bibliography

hello everyone this is dr. Stevens with a lecture on APA documentation APA stands for the American Psychological Association documentation means simply the information that you give when you are doing any kind of academic writing on the outside sources that you reference or refer to in the text of your paper so let’s get started first of all this lecture is also related to the assignment to write an annotated bibliography so we will be going over the assignment instructions or the bibliography secondly we are not going to talk about all aspects of APA documentation here and by the way this is sometimes called APA style and I should have mentioned that the American Psychological Association is a professional organization that sets guidelines for research and documentation in the social sciences not the humanities such as English and literature and that sort of thing but if you’re taking sociology political science anthropology and a lot of other related subjects you will be asked to use APA style and many of you are familiar with that already but anyway back to what I was saying we’re not going to cover all aspects of APA we’re going to be looking primarily at the list of references and the reason we’re doing that is that you need the information on a list of references for your annotated bibliography alright so let’s get started in this lecture then we will be looking at the instructions for the annotated bibliography because that is very very important for an understanding of documentation and we can learn about documentation by talking about that assignment I’m going to look at what I call the APA checklist we will when we look at the APA checklist we will look at the fact that APA documentation is actually two parts there are two parts to the documentation system I want you this is very important I want you to refer to the little seagull handbook pages 136 and following that is your chapter on APA documentation this is required reading so as you do the assignments in this course that require some form of documentation exercises and papers and so on just assume that I am assuming that you have done this reading or that you at least know to refer to this chapter when you have questions certainly you can always ask questions of me but there are some basics here that you need to know and you won’t always have access to me readily so you should be able to use the little seagull handbook to find the information that you need for the list of references go to the little seagull handbook pages 144 through 162 that gives you information on the list of references we will be going over the entry in an annotated bibliography or a list of references all right there is an entry for each source and so we’re going to look at the information required and then we will be looking at formatting let me go back to this point about the two parts all right there are two parts to the APA documented documentation system there are is the list of references that goes at the end of your paper and then there are the in-text citations so right in the text of your paper where you make reference to an outside source you insert an in-text citation and that citation then points to the list of references we are not going to be looking at in text citations in this particular lecture we’re focusing as I said on the list of references because that’s the information that you need for the annotated bibliography alright I want then to switch over now to the APA checklist you have this in the course the blackboard course site under course documents you will find your own copy of the APA documentation checklist all right so make sure that you access that so that you’ll have a copy know where to get it when you need it whether you want to print it out or just download it to your computer or whenever you want to do but make sure that you’ve got a copy and that you have access to it use this checklist folks before you submit any kind of assignment in this course that requires documentation can use it by going through the checklist each item in the checklist and checking off that item against your own documentation in other words dude did you do that particularly that particular item correctly in your documentation it’s like proofreading in this case you’re proofreading your documentation all right I want to go through the highlighted items here first of all APA documentation is an in-text documentation system I already told you what in-text documentation means our in-text citation it’s not a footnote system do not use footnotes no footnotes no endnotes no notes with numbers or anything like that superscript subscripts stars double stars okay no notes and this will become clear to you as we work on documentation in the course and as we go through this checklist alright in the checklist I’m going to focus only on those things that are important for the list of references so first of all name your sources correctly alright sources of information whether it’s a book whether it’s an article whether it’s a website no matter what it is you always use the author’s last name meaning this is how you list it it’s the first thing the first thing that you see in a list of references let’s look at what I mean we’re going to scroll down here to the end where I’ve got a sample list of references see this references right okay author’s last name gilyard author’s last name Gould author’s last name Kincaid the first thing that the reader sees in the list of references is the name under which that source is listed and that source is always going to be listed under the last name of the author I don’t want to see anything else out here all right I don’t want to see the URL I don’t want to see the title I don’t want to see the publisher I don’t want to see the date the very first thing is the author’s last name but you guessed it there are exceptions we have an exception right here please note the exceptions if you are using a reference and by reference I mean something like a dictionary and encyclopedia something like Garner’s Mardin modern American usage right which is a handbook of language use whenever you are using a reference at this and a handy way to understand this is one of those books in which everything is listed alphabetically just like in a dictionary right the words are all listed alphabetically dictionary begins with a goes to Z and so on alright when you are taking something from a reference work such as a definition of a word or from an encyclopedia an article on something like an article on documentation or whatever it is you do not use the author’s last name remember we’re talking about exceptions here you use the title of the entry in that reference work in this particular case as an example I’m using the entry from Garner’s modern American usage I’m using the entry which will be halfa betta chol in that book about sexism in language and that article is called sexism so that’s how it’s listed here now there are other exceptions right so let’s go back to number one here we’re number two rabbits always use the author’s last name except where the author is unknown right and I’m sure you were thinking how old dr. Stevens what do I do if I don’t know who the author is okay when the author is unknown use the title of the source if it’s a book use the book title if it’s an article use the article title if it’s actually a website that doesn’t in other words is not a specific book or article that you’ve gotten on the internet or that you’ve gotten from the library but it’s actually a website then use the name of the website but that’s that’s kind of your default when you don’t have the author’s last name or the author’s name finally in APA only the last name is spelled out after the last name the name is followed by the author’s initials not the full first name of the author again you can see this in our example if we scroll down you can see this in our sample list of references Gilyard K Holstein D and so on Gould well gold’s first name happens to be Steven but we don’t spell out Steven Kincaid all right Kincaid’s first name happens to be Jamaica all right if we don’t spell out Jamaica we just give her the J all right moving right along next highlighted item would be item 7 we’re talking about format here folks format do you use the correct format spacing double-spaced in AP a manuscript style it is double spacing your list of references is double-spaced if you don’t double space your list of references you will be penalized it will reduce your grade okay a common mistake mistake is to single space the individual entries and double space between them that’s a no-no okay format again hanging indentation hanging indentation is the opposite of paragraph indentation paragraph indentation the first line is indented hanging indentation everything except the first line is indented scrolling down again to our sample notice how it works what is this entry for Kincaid here Kincaid out to the left margin right everything else indented in a word processor be sure to use the hanging indentation function in Microsoft Word for example you go into the paragraph features under the Home tab and you look for spacing and you set for spacing to hanging do not use the tab key do not use the space bar if you use the tab key or the space bar anytime you make any kind of change to the text of your references you will mess up the format because the indentation will no longer be in the correct place in a word processor you are not using a typewriter you cannot indents you cannot indent a paragraph but in hanging indentation you cannot condensed by using your space key and your tab to the whole K formats so make sure you use the correct format alphabetical order wouldn’t know how upset dr. Stevens becomes when he sees a list of references that uses numbers no the order in an APA list of references is alphabetical order it is not numerical order put things in alphabetical order again our sample we begin with a G we go to K we go to se we go to s T and I think that’s the last one okay alphabetical order not numerical order and let’s see include all the necessary information we’ll see some more of this I hope when we get to the sample reference list in the assignment instructions but this is the basic information for an entry in a list of references it’s the author the title the date and the city and state and publication and then the name of the publisher those are the one two three four five basic items of information author title date city and state that is the location where it’s published and then the name of the publisher that’s your basic information make sure you’ve got it all okay online sources these are the killer alright let’s begin with the most common mistake the most common mistake when you are listing in your references an online source is to use the URL as the name of the source that is a no-no right this is a URL Uniform Resource locator it’s the thing that goes in the browser URL box at the top of your browser when you want to look for a specific website that’s a URL all right it is certainly important information but it is not the name of your source all right let’s look at an example and by the way please use use this particular source for information about documentation it’s an excellent backup for the little siegel handbook and here is the information on okay this is an online source it’s on the web it gives you excellent information on APA style and it is by Diana hacker alright and be Fister all right those are the authors of this particular website the title is researching in the social sciences and then alright there is the URL so we are including the URL and now notice notice that there is no publisher given here in this particular case we are treating the publisher as with well we’re treating the URL as the publisher all right we’ve got a title we’ve got an author and we have this other piece of information here now there is no city or state or name the publisher because this thing was published right on the internet and by the way it was published by Bedford st. Martin’s com alright so in many cases with an online source you do not have a city and state of publication so keep that in mind what you do have is this business about retrieved so retrieved on 9th of March 2012 from Wright and from this particular URL I’m giving the location a location on the internet so that’s important all right so while we’re talking about online sources let’s just go through this all right we’ve already talked about the author all right the publication date now if there is no date of publication you use the initials and the D for no date that simply tells the reader that when you retrieve this particular information from the internet will cite that you retrieved it from is an undated site where the information had no date researching in the social sciences is the title goes right after the date for an D and then finally we talked about the date of retreats moving along to item 15 did you use the correct format for titles of sources in the list of references titles of short items such as essays are capitalized the same as book titles but are not italicized book titles are italicized all right in APA format use capital letters only in the first word of the title this is different from practices other formats and other documentation styles the most common format for writing out the title of a book for example is to capitalize all of the first letters of all of the major words in the time so let’s look at what what I mean by going again to our handy-dandy list of references let’s take this first entry by Gilyard Holstein Schuster rhetorical choices a reader for writers that’s the name of a book right notice that it is in high tallix notice that only the first word is capitalized all the other words are lowercase and then let’s look at the title of an essay by mr. Gould here right women’s brains it’s a short piece it’s an article it’s an essay not a book alright so just as with books only the first word is capitalized reigns is not but notice that it is not in italics it’s in regular font all right that’s the APA checklist use it let’s go back to the annotated bibliography and look at that assignment now what you will see when you download and I hope that you will be sure to download and study the assignment instructions what you will see is you’ll see information on the due date and the reference ok the little seagull handbook pages 54 to 58 gives you some information on annotated bibliographies there’s an explanation of the assignment I’m just giving you the big picture here folks what we want to look at is the list of references some information on sources and then finally the instructions for the bibliography but what we’re going to do is we’re going to look at an actual annotated bibliography and welcome let’s just scroll through this so you can see you can see what it looks like we’re just looking now okay I’m not telling you what we’re seeing we’re just looking okay look look look some more see what it looks like visually because this is one of the things I do when I grade folks I just look and what you’ve got because I can see a lot just by looking without even reading okay bibliography now what is an annotated bibliography a bibliography is simply a list of books well folks and articles and other items like that all right it’s a list of sources of information and there are lots and lots and lots of kinds of bibliography we are talking about bibliographies for research so your bibliography is a list of books and articles and other sources that you are using for your research in English 102 and here they are all right here are your sources something by Jay a Arthur something by the Asha broad and so Tifa Lola okay it’s a list of sources but it’s an annotated bibliography Oh what does me an annotated bibliography includes a brief note that describes the source so in this particular case for example we’ve got a book called invisible sojourners african-american immigrant diaspora in the United States look there’s a mistake here isn’t there my mistake I got a correctness what’s the mistake here you should be able to pick it out by now right African immigrant diaspora it should be lowercase sojourners should be lowercase United States would not be lowercase because it’s a proper name so if you’ve got a proper name in the title that’s a different thing but anyway so what we’re saying is a J a Arthur in this book examines the reasons Native Americans have such a difficult time assimilating with members of the host society and so on all right is a very very brief note hence and notation a brief note that explains what the source is now what does this have to do with APA documentation because your annotated bibliography uses the same kind of information and formatting has your list of references in your research paper same thing so basically the annotated bibliography is just like a list of references the only difference is this note here okay that’s the only difference between this and a regular list of references so folks everything that I told you about that list of references and all of that information in the checklist about references applies to your annotated bibliography use that information let’s go back you begin your annotated bibliography whoops what happened okay I don’t know what happened there I was writing here you begin I don’t know what’s going on oh I know what’s happening okay what’s happening is that Microsoft Word wants to center because everything’s centered here I think that’s what’s happening Microsoft Word wants to send to what I’m writing here okay you’ve got the cover page all right you got a cover page I’m going to stop trying to write on this okay I’m just gonna assume that you see that you have a cover page cover page includes the title of the bibliography it includes your name it includes the course it includes the professor’s name and includes the date all right and as I say Microsoft Word wants to put all these check marks somewhere else and I’ll just let it do that we’re not gonna worry okay you have a brief introductory paragraph that tells you what this bibliography is this bibliography is a list of sources for a research project what research project you need to name the research project what’s it about hostility between native Africans and African Americans or whatever your topic is alright and then we want to know what the research question is doesn’t have to be a long paragraph but it has to do those things it has to identify this as a bibliography it needs to say what the research project is it needs to say what the research question is all right so remember that there will be opportunity to discuss this assignment in discussion online alright when we see each other online so I’m not going to go over all of the details here but remember the main thing is in this lecture we’re talking about APA documentation we’re focusing on the information and format and other aspects of the list of references and you are using that information you are using the reference list for your annotated bibliography the big difference is that you are adding to your reference list you are adding the annotations as we conclude let’s just go over a few things that you might be asking about right now you might want to know something about sources this is important your sources can be internet sources they can be print sources from the library they can be ebooks they can be articles they must be traditional sources meaning that they have some kind of scholarly Authority they are authoritative and what does this mean authoritative okay Thoreau tative traditionals okay sources here we go source is traditionally used for scholarly research all right Wikipedia know a blog no I’ll write things like that student articles that you might find on the Internet no not traditional not at all here here’s my explanation of authoritative authoritative simply means that the information is reliable and accurate and it’s reliable and accurate according to certain scholarly standards now I’m not going to go over all of the instructions but you’re going to certainly ask how many items you must have and where does it say that okay well you need five sources either some word somewhere in the instructions it tells you how many sources you need I hope it does all right okay well I can’t I can’t find that right now but all right five five sources for the annotated bibliography and finally remember when it comes to the annotated bibliography we are talking about sources then you will be using for the research you do in English 102 and then you will use when you are writing your research paper alright folks thanks for listening use that APA checklist I’ll see you in discussion


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